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Mongolian Language

A tutorial for those interested

 

<< Back to General Introduction

 

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To use this tutorial, you will need to download the Mongolian Font.

 

Introduction

Lessons


 

 

The Mongolian language uses two official alphabets. The most frequently used alphabet is the one that I will use in this tutorial. The other alphabet looks similar to a vertical arabic script. It is used a little, but if you go to Mongolia, you will not need to know it. You learn it when you go there if you want.

 

 

The Mongolian Alphabet:
(Wguggy Mkluka)

Letter Sound Example
G g
A
Salt
D d
B
Bag
> .
V,W
Vote, Wow
U u
G, K
Bag, Back
: ;
D
Dog
_ -
YEH, YUH
Yes, Yearn
C c
YO
Your
R r
J
John
P p
Z
Zebra
N n
EE
Eat
A a
EY
journey
{ [
K
Kick
L l*
L
Laugh
B b
M
Mongol
Y y
N
November
K k
O
Off
F f
UH
Work
" '
P
Past
J j
R rolled always
Rock
V v
S
Strike
M m
T
Teach
E e
OH
Toe
O o
OO
Tooth
Q q
F
Fox
H h
KH
Khan
W w
TS
Tseren
X x
CH
Choose
I i
SH
Shift
+ =
SCH
Schultz
} ]**
hard sign no sound of own
---
S s
EE
Eat
< ,**
soft sign no sound of own
---
T t
EH
Yes
? /
YOU
You
Z z
YAH
Yawn

 

*This letter doesn't exist in the English language but is an aspirated L (you will have to have a Mongolian speaker help you learn this one)
**These sign either make the consonant they follow more distinct (hard sign) or palatalized (soft sign)


Vowel Harmony
(Tuinu pkhnwkh cv)

There are three kinds of vowels in Mongolian. There are masculine, feminine, and neuter. When these vowels are used in Mongolian words, all of the vowels must be of the same gender except for the neuter vowels which may be found in either masculine or feminine compositions. If there are only neuter vowels in a word, the word is considered feminine in vowel harmony.

 

Masculine Vowels:

Gg* Kk* Ee* Ss* Zz* Cc


Feminine Vowels:

Tt* Ff* Oo* _-


Neuter:

Nn* Aa* ?/

Examples:

Tj;tytm* Tuinu* Gj.gy* Gg.sugg* Hojth


 

Sentence Structure
(Fuooldtj Dgaueelglm)

 

There are a few things about Mongolian sentences that you should know. First of all since Mongolian is in the same language family as Korean and Japanese (Altaic Language Family), the verb always comes last in the sentence. The subject is first, if it is said at all (most times the subject is understood and not said at all), followed by the direct and indirect objects and prepositional phrases. Also there are two kinds of question sentences. The first is a yes or no question. This sentence ends with a particle that denotes that it requires only a yes or no response. The second sentence is a WH question. The response to this sentence requires an actual explaination. This sentence also ends in a particle that denotes such.

 

Question paticles:

 

For yes/no question sentences ending in a feminine word

the particle is oo.


For yes/no question sentences ending in a male word

the paricle is ee.


For yes/no question sentences ending in a feminine word with a final long vowel

the particle is /o.


For yes/no question sentences ending in a male word with a final long vowel

the particle is /e.

 

For WH questions ending in a word with a final consonant of > L B Y

the particle is dt.


For WH questions ending in a word with a final consonant other than > L B Y

the particle is .t.

 

Example sentences:

 

Basic sentence structure-

I to my older brother the book gave.

(Dn gh;gg ykbsu fuf.^)


Yes/No questions-

Did you give the book to your brother? Did he take the book? Is this a table? Is that a pencil? (Xn gh;gg ykbsu fuf. oo$ Mtj ykbsu g.vgy ee$ Tyt injtt /o$ Mtj hgjgy;gg /e$)


WH questions-

Where did you go? Where are you going?

(Hggyg z.vgy dt$ Xn hggig z.gh .t$)


Lesson 1

 

Reading Subject
Eyinh Vt;t.

 

Tyt wggv^ Mtj woyh^ Tyt vgbdgj^ Mtj hgyg^ Tyt ykb^ Mtj ;t.mtj^ Tyt injtt^ Mtj vgy;gl^ Tyt ugj^ Tyt gzug^ Tyt mg.gu^ Tyt /e .t$ Tyt optu^ Mtj /e .t$ Mtj pejgu^ Tyt hgjgy;gg^ Tyt wkyh^ Mtj hgglug^ Mtj hgyg^ Tyt fluooj^ Mtj wguggy mkluka^ Tyt tuinu ovtu^ Tyt bk;^ Mtj eel^ Mtj ool^ Tyt utj* mtj iooutt^ Tyt hemug^ Mtj hgax^ Mtj hgldgug^ Mtj vtjtt^ Tyt he.ny^ Mtj ;gyh^

Tyt pejgu ee$
Mnab* tyt pejgu^
Tyt hgjgy;gg /e$
Mnab* tyt hgjgy;gg^
Tyt tuinu oo$
Mnab* tyt tuinu^
Mtj ool oo$
Ouoa* mtj ool dni^ Mtj eel^
Mtj injtt /o$
Mnab* mtj injtt^
Mtj bk; ee$
Ouoa* mtj bk; dni^

Tyt utj dni^ Mtj bk; dni^ Tyt vgbdgj dni^ Mtj vgy;gl dni^ Tyt hgjgy;gg dni^ Tyt ikhka dni^ Mtj eel dni* ool^ Tyt ykb dni* ;t.mtj^ Tyt wggv dni* wgv^

Tyt oo; oo* wkyh ee$
Tyt oo; dni* wkyg dni* tyt hgyg^
Mtj hgldgug ee* vtjtt /o$
Mtj ovtu oo* pejgu ee$

Mtj wggv ee* ;t.mtj oo$
Mtj he.ny ee* ;gyh ee$
Tyt hemug ee* hgax ee$
Tyt fluooj oo* iooutt /o$
Tyt wtj; oo* dth oo$

 

 

New Words
Inyt Ouv

 

Gzug cup
dgaj
building
dth
ink
;gyh
teapot
;t.mtj
notebook
pejgu
picture/drawing
bk;
tree/wood
ygv
age
ykb
book
ytj
name
k/emgy
student
fluooj
coat hangar
vgbdgj
chalk board

vgy;gl chair
vee@
sit
vtjtt
fork
mg.gu
plate
mnab
yes
mtj
he/him/she/her/it/that
ouoa
no
optu
pen
oo;
door
hgglug
door
hggyg
where
hgax
scissors
hgldgug
spoon

hgyg wall
hgjgy;gg
pencil
he.ny
bucket/pail/pitcher
hemug
knife
wggv
paper
wgv
snow
woyh
bag
wtj;
chalk
injtt
table
ikhka
chalk
iooutt
closet/cupboard
/e
what

 


Lesson 2

Reading Subject
Eyinh Vt;t.

 

Tyt inyt injtt^ Mtj heexny vgy;gl^ Tyt vgahgy ;t.mtj^ Mtj beehga wggv^ Tyt vgay optu^ Mtj bee optu^ Mtj vgahgy ov^ Tyt vkyny ykb^

Tyt hty dt$
Tyt dgm^
Mtj hty dt$
Mtj :elbgg^

Mtj ugj^ Tyt hejee^ Tyt yo;^ Mtj xyh^ Tyt gb^ Mtj hgbgj^ Tyt io;^ Tyt hfl^ Gg. grnlxny^ Ttr dgui^ Gh k/emgy^ :oo vejgux^ Tux tbx^ Gg. dgui dni^ Ttr tbx dni^ Gh vejgux dni^ Tux k/emgy dni^ :oo grnlxny dni^

Tyt /e .t$
Tyt hoy^
Tyt hty dt$
Tyt Dgm^
Dgm k/emgy ee$
Mnab* Dgm k/emgy^
:elbgg k/emgy ee$
Ouoa* :elbgg k/emgy dni^

Dgm vgay k/emgy^ :elbgg vgay tbx^ Gg. vgay grnlxny^ Ttr vgay dgui^

Tyt zbgj ykb dt$
Tyt vkyny ykb^
Tyt vgahgy ykb^
Tyt inyt ykb^
Mtj zbgj woyh .t$
Mtj beehga woyh^
Mtj bee woyh^
Mtj heexny woyh^

Gh bee k/emgy dni* vgay k/emgy^ Tyt beehga pejgu dni* vgahgy pejgu^ Mtj inyt utj dni* heexny utj^ Tyt vgahgy hkkl^ Mtj vgay hoy^

Dgm vgay k/emgy ee$
Mnab* Dgm vgay k/emgy^
Mg grnlxny ee$
Ouoa* dn dgui^
:elbgg bee tbx oo$
Ouoa* :elbgg vgay tbx^
Mg k/emgy ee$
Mnab* dn k/emgy^

Dgm vgay hoy^ :elbgg bee hoy dni^ Tyt inyt ;t.mtj^ Mtj heexny ;t.mtj^ Tht vgahgy pejgu^ Mtj beehga pejgu^ Tyt hoy dgui^ Mtj hoy vgay tbx^

 

 

Grammar Explanation
Htlpoa Mgaldgj

 

  1. Adjectives always come before the nouns they modify.
  2. The words Tyt and Mtj answer the question Gl, (which)
  3. When you ask "Hty" it only refers to a person. When you ask "?e" it refers to all else.

 

 

New Words
Inyt Ouv

 

grnlxny worker
gb mouth
gbgj easy
gl. which
gh older brother
dgui teacher
dn I/me
;oo
younger sibling
bee
bad
beehga
ugly
yo;
eye
vejgui
student
ov hair
hgbgj
nose
hfl
foot
hejee
finger
heexny
old
hoy
person
htl tongue/language
hty
who
xnh
ear
inyt
new
tux
older sister
ttr
mother
zbgj
what kind

 


Lesson 3

 

Reading Subject
Eyinh Vt;t.

 

Tyt gyun^ Tyt vgahgy gyun^ Ty; dgui dgayg^ Ty; injtt* vgy;gl* iooutt* mkl, dgayg^ Ty; pejgu* vkyny* vtmuool dgayg^ Ty; Dgm dgayg^ Dgm vgay k/emgy^ :elbgg ty; dgayg^ Mtj utj^ Mtj inyt utj^ Gg. grnlxny^ Ttr dgui^ Gh k/emgy^ Tux tbx^ :oo vejgux^ Dn k/emgy^ Mg k/emgy ee$ @Ouoa* dn k/emgy dni^ Dn dgui^ Mtj /e .t$ Mtj eel^ Mty; /e dgayg .t$ Mty; bk; dgayg^ Ty; /e /e dgayg .t$ Ty; bkj,* hky, dgayg^ Ty; ukl dgayg^ Ty; wgv dgayg^ Mty; ool dgayg^

Ty; hoy dgayg ee$
Glug^ Ty; hoy glug^
Mty; hoy dgayg ee$
Dgayg^ Mty; hoy dgayg^
Mty; hty dgayg .t$
Mty; :elbgg dgayg^

Ty; mkl, dgayg ee$
Dgayg* ty; mkl, dgayg^
Ty; zbgj mkl, dgayg .t$
Ty; vgahgy mkl, dgayg^
Mty; inyt dgainy dgayg ee$
Glug* mty; heexny dgainy dgayg^

Ty; utj dgayg^ Ty; utj dgayg^ Mty; dgainy dgayg^ Mty; heexny dgainy dgayg^ Gh hgg dgayg .t$ Gh ty; dgayg^ :oo hgg dgayg .t$ :oo mty; dgayg^ Ty; zbgj zbgj vtmuool dgayg .t$ Ty; vgay* bee* vgahgy* beehga klky vtmuool dgayg^ Tyt ukl ee$ Dni* tyt ukl dni* yeej^ Pgb hgg dgayg .t$ Pgb ty; dgayg^ Ty; zbgj pgb dgayg .t$ Ty; fjufy pgb dgayg* hgjny mty; ygjnay pgb dgayg^

 

 

Grammar Explanation
Htlpoa Mgaldgj

 

  1. In Mongolian the words ty; (here) and mty; (there) usually go at the beginning of the sentence.
  2. To ask about several things at once connected to one question word, simply repeat the question word twice. For example who who is over there?
  3. In Mongolian when a consonant is made soft (palatalized) the < (soft sign) or a final N is used.

New Words
Inyt Ouv

gyun class
glug
nonexistant/hand's palm
gjhn
alchohol/whiskey
dgn@
exist/state of being
dgahuoa
nonexistant
dgainy
building
ukl
river
pgb
road
bkj, horse
ygjnay
narrow
yeej
lake
klky
many
fjufy
wide
vglhn
wind
vkyny
interesting/newspaper
vtmuool
magazine

mgbhn tobacco/cigarette
mkl,
mirror/dictionary
mty;
there
ty;
here
ev
water
jgiggy ev
mineral water
hky,
sheep
wffy
few

 


 

Lesson 4

 

Reading Subject
Eyinh Vt;t.

 

Ty; klky vgahgy ykb dgayg^ Tyt bnyna ykb^ Mtj mgys ykb^ Dguinay ykb mty; dgayg^ Tyt /e .t$ Tyt mkl, dnxnu^ Mtj /e .t$ Mtj vejgh dnxnu^ Ty; inyt ;t.mtj dgayg ee$ Dgayg^ Ty; klky inyt ;t.mtj dgayg^ Tyt htyna ;t.mtj .t$ Ty; :kjrnay hoounay ;t.mtj^ Tyt dguinay vgy;gl ee$ Dni* k/emys vgy;gl^ Tyt k/emys injtt dni* dguinay injtt^ Mty; /e /e dgayg ,t$ Mty; bnyna uemgl dgayg^ Gg.sy heexny ;ttl dgayg^ Ttrnay inyt bgluga dgayg^ Tuxnay glxeej dgayg^ Ghsy hopooyna kjkklm dgayg^ :oounay wgbw dgayg^ Dgv :elbggunay pejgu dgayg^ Tyt ykbsy iooutt^ Mtj bgyga gyunay vgbdgj^ Tyt vgbdgjsy glxeej^ Ghsy dgainyunay wkyh mty; dgayg^ Dgmsy utj ty; dgayg^ Mtj* vejueelnay dgainy^ Tyt* tbxnay bkj,^ Tbxnay bkj, vgay^ Tyt mgyga hky, dni* bgyga hky,^^ Tyt hoyna bkj, mty; dgayg^ Tyt /eys pejgu .t$ Tyt* eelsy pejgu^ Tyt pejgu vgahgy^ Mtj oolyna pejgu^ Mtj pejgu beehga^ Mty; bk;ys pejgu dgayg ee$ Glug^ Mty; hoyna pejgu dgayg^ Dgv hkynys pejgu dgayg^ Mgys gg.sy bkj, gl, .t$ Bnyna gg.sy bkj, tyt^ Xnyna ;oounay ;ttl zbgj .t$ :oounay ;ttl inyt^ Bnyna uemgl rnrnu^ Mgys bgluga mkb^ Tyt mkl, dnxnu vgay^ Gjhn beehga^ Mgbhn bee^ Mgys ;oo ty; dgayg ee$ Glug* bnyna ;oo ty; glug^ Bnyna ;oounay ykb ty; dgayg^ Bnyna ;oounay ykb inyt^ Bnyna ;oounay klky vgahgy inyt ykb ty; dgayg^

 

Grammar Explanation
Htlpoa Mgaldgj

 

  • In Mongolian, the genetive case shows possesion: femanine words ending in a consonant-nay, male words ending in a consonant -sy, femanine words ending in a short vowel-yna (replacing the vowel), male words ending in a short vowel-ys, words ending in long vowels (dipthongs) -y, words ending in a y(u) or long vowels @unay, words ending in a ,, n, r, x, i -nay.
  • The words with the above case ending precede the word they modify.
  • In words that end in a short vowel or a short vowel and consonant, sometimes the vowel is dropped.

 

New Words
Inyt Ouv

 

glxeej scarf
dgv
and
dnxnu
writing
uemgl
boots
mkb
big

;ttl gown
rnrnu
small
bgluga
hat
bgyga
our
ytu
one
kjkklm tie/handkerchief
ev
water
hgysy vkyny
bulletin board
hkcj
two
hopooyna kjkklm
neckerchief
vejgh dnxnu textbook
hopoo
neck
wguggy
white
wgbw
shirt
xn
you(informal)

 


Lesson 5

Reading Subject
Bgyga Gyun

 

Mty; ytu inyt dgainy dgayg^ Mtj bgyga vejueelnay dgainy^ Mty; bgyga gyun dna^ Gyun; klky vgahgy injtt* vgy;gl dgayg^ Gyun hgygy; Vohdggmgjsy pejgu* hgysy vkyny dgayg^ Mgyga gnun; ht;ty vgy;gl* ht;ty injtt dna .t$ Bgyga gyun; 5 (mg.gy) injtt* 10 (gj.gy) vgy;gldna^ Dguinay injtt* vgy;gl ty; dgayg^ K/emys injtt* vgy;gl mty; dgayg^ Gnun; dgui veer dgayg^ Dgv 8 (ygabgy) k/emgy veer dgayg^ Mt; hnxttl hnar dgayg^ Dgyu gveelm gveer dgayg^ K/emyee; hgjnelr dgayg^ :elbggunay ykb ty; dgayg^ :elbgg hnxttl dnxnr dgayg^ Dgm hnxttl dnxnr dgayg ee$ Ouoa* Dgm hnxttl dnxnhuoa dgayg^ Dgm pejgu pejr dgayg^ Dgmsy ;oo dgv k/emgy^ Mooyna ytj Dkl;^ Dgm ykb eyinr dgayg^ Dgmg; klky vkyny ykb dna^ Yg;g; klky ykb dgahuoa^ Bnyna ghg; 3 (uej.gy) optu dna^ Xnyna ghg; optu dna /e$ Dna^ Bnyna ghg; 2 (hkcj) optu dna^ Bnyna ghsy optu* bnyna woyhty; dgayg^ Bgyga utjm hty hty dgayg .t$ Mt; /e hnar dgayg .t$ Bgyga utjm gg.* ttr* gh* tux dgayg^ Gg. wga eer dgayg^ Ttr hkkl n;tr dgayg^ Gh vkyny eyinr* tux jglnk vkyvkr dgayg^ Ug;gg 2 (hkcj) hooht; mkulkr dgayg^ Mty; ytu mkb vgahgy eel dgayg^ Mtj eelgy; klky hky, dgayg^

Numbers
Mkk

 

ytu (ty)
hkcj
uejg. (uej.gy)
;fjf. (;fj.fy)
mg. (mg.gy)
pejugg (y)
;klkk (y)
ygab (gy)
-v (ty)
gjg. (gj.gy)
gj.gy ytu
gj.gy hkcj
gj.gy uejg.
gj.gy ;fjf.
gj.gy mg.
gj.gy pejugg
gj.gy ;klkk
gj.gy ygab
gj.gy -v
hkj, (hkjny)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

hkjny ytu
hkjny hkcj
hkjny uejg.
hkjny ;fjf.
hkjny mg.
hkjny pejugg
hkjny ;klkk
hkjny ygab
hkjny -v
uex (ny)
uexny ytu
uexny hkcj
uexny uejg.
uexny ;fjf.
uexny mg.
uexny pejugg
uexny ;klkk
uexny ygab
uexny -v
;fx (ny)

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

;fxny ytu
mg.,
mg.ny ytu
rgj (gy)
rgjgy ytu
;gl (gy)
;glgy ytu
ygz (y)
ygzy ytu
-j (ty)
-jty ytu
peey
peey ytu
peey uexny ytu
;klkky peey
bzyug (y)

41
50
51
60
61
70
71
80
81
90
91
100
101
131
700
1000

 

Grammar Explanation
Htlpoa Mgaldgj

 

  • In Mongolian, for the dative case you add a ; or a m. This case expresses the meaning to/at/in/toward. If a word ends in .*u*j*v add a m, all others add a ;.
  • When using the second person imperative form, just use the verbs root. ie: Xn z.! Dnmuna vee! etc.
  • For progressive verbs you add the r or x to the end of the verb stem and add dgayg.
  • When using a number as a modifier, use number and the added part in parenthesis in the table above. ie: uej.gy ykb* ;fxny ykb etc.
  • For making words plural Mongolian has several suffixes. You must learn these as they pertain to each word. The most commonly used on is ee;* oo;. The others are xee;* xoo;* ;* v* ygj. All other cases are added as usual to the end of this suffix.


gvee@ ask
gveelm
question
dna
exist/is
dnxn@
write
dnmuna
don't
doo
don't
ug;gg
outside
pgg@
teach
pejg@
drow
n;t@ eat
kjxeel@
translate
jg;nk
radio
vkykv@
listen
vee@
sit
mkulk@
play
mkk
number
eyin@
read
ee@
drink

hgjnel@ answer
hna@
do/make
hnxttl
lesson
hooht;
child
ht;
how much/many
wga
tea
z.g@
go

 


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