Facts and figures on Mongolia

Als see the more *funny facts*

Landlocked in between the bear, the Russian Federation, and the dragon, China.
The 6th largest country in Asia, and the 18th largest in the world.
Surface area
1.566.500 square km.
Average altitude
1.580m above sea level.
Altitude capital Ulaanbaatar
1.350m above sea level.
Lowest point: Hoh Nuur
518 m above sea level.
Highest point: Nayramadlin Orgil
4,374 m above sea level.
Geographic coordinates
46 00 N, 105 00 E
Coldest month: January
Average temperature : - 35C
Warmest month: July
Average temperature: +25C
Extreme continental; Desert.
(large temperature ranges, both daily and seasonal).
Steppe, semidesert and desert plains, mountains.
Over 260 sunny days a year , often with clear cloudless skies.
Rainfall and Snow
Snow and rainfall are very low, the climate being arid. However, enough rain usually occurs in July and August to swell rivers, and snow blizzards can occur in winter. The highest peaks have small glaciers.
Tugrug. 1Tugrug=100 mungu
Exchange rate
1211 Tugrugs = 1 USd (Jan, 2005)
2.3 million people, and one of the lowest population densities in the world. 1.5 inhabitants per 1 sq.km.
Very high, in excess of 80%.
Ethnic groups
85% Mongol, mostly Khalkha Mongol.
7% Turkic (mainly Kazakh),
4.6% Tungusic
3.4% other groups.
Four million Mongols live outside Mongolia.
Over 90% Khalkha Mongol ('Mongolian Language'). The script is Cyrillic due to Russian influence but a switch back to traditional script has begun in schools. Minor languages include Kazakh.
94% Tibetan Buddhist Lamas , also elements of Shamanism.
6% Muslim (mainly in the south- west).
Government of Mongolia
Parliamentary , with President second in authority to State Great Hural (Parliament) .
1960 and 1992, some revision 1996.
new! - Livestock Numbers
According to the 2004 livestock census, the number of livestock in Mongolia was 27,996,800: up 10% on 2003.
Preliminary estimates indicate that there are 1,999,600 horses, 1,835,500 cows, 11,659,000 sheep and 12,215,400 goats. Compared with 2003 the number of horses has increased by 30,700; cows by 42,600; sheep by 903,500 and goats by 1,562,700. The number of camels fell by 400 to 256,300.
Administrative subdivisions
21 Aimags (provinces),
capital city
3 autonomous cities ( Darkhan, Erdenet, Choir)
 Mongolia according to the UN Human Development Report 2002, compared to the Netherlands.
  Mongolia Netherlands
Life expectancy at birth 62,9 78,1
GDP per capita (USD) 1,783 25,657
Population under age 15 35,2% 18,3%
Percentage of women working 73,5% 45,4%
Percentage of GNP spent on education 85-87 11,7% 6,9%
Percentage of GNP spent on education 95-97 5,7% 5,1%

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Mongolia bookshop
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Historical books - new!
Book: Genghis Khan and the Modern World
Story of the Weeping Camel - DVD
Where the pavement ends: bicycle trip
Modern Mongolia A Concise History
Mongolia Photo Book - Marco van Duyvendijk

Buddhism (in general)

Introduction on Buddhism
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Het leven van Boeddha (Nederlands)
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Mongolie Nieuws (Nederlands)

Arts Council of Mongolia

Enkhtur - Artist of the Month
Mongolia - Buddhist and Historic Art book
Arts Council Home

Other Sites:

Mongolia book shop
Hovsgol Ecology
IN Mongolia Consulting
Mongolia Pictures

More Mongolian Buddhist Sites:

Erdene Zuu http://www.erdenezuu.mn/
Amarbasgalant http://amarbayasgalant.org

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Religion in Mongolia

The history of religion in Mongolia
Mongolian Aspects of Buddhism
Faith in Motion
Monasteries in Mongolia
Traditional Celebrations in Greater Mongolia
Anthropological definition of religion
Ten black sins and ten white charities
Northern Buddhist Conference on Ecology and Development
News on Buddhism in Mongolia

Mongolian Celebrations and Festivals

The Nadaam Festival of Manly Sports
Tsagaan Sar: The Mongolian Lunar New Year
Impression: Tsagaan Sar in Khentii
Celebration in the Countryside

Monasteries in Mongolia

Amarbayasgalant Khiid
Baldan Baraivan
Bakula Rimpoche
Bogd Khan Palace
Dashchoilin Khiid
Geser Sum
Khamariin Khiid

Danzanravjaa Heritage


Khamariin Khiid
Images Marco van Duyvendijk - Photo Book
General Photo Gallery
Mr. Altangerel Images

Ancient Mongolia

FACING EAST - Stone sculpture and petroglyphs of Central Asia


Recommended Sites:

Lingua Mongolia
- Classical Mongolian Grammer and Tutorials

Mongolian Photo Gallery
- Pictures from all over the country

Mongolian Properties
- Real Estate in the Land of Blue Heaven

Dutch Language Sites
Mongolie Startpagina
Mongolie Cultuur Pagina
Mongolie Reizen Pagina
Mongolie.net (in Dutch)
Mongolie Nieuwsbrief

News Sites
Mongolia Web News
Mongolian Artist
Don Croner's World Wide Wanders


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Written by Michael Kohn

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Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World - Jack Weatherford

Trans-Siberian Handbook, 6th - Bryn Thomas

Colloquial Mongolian - Alan J. K. Sanders...

Women of Mongolia - Martha Avery
Hearing Birds Fly - Louisa Waugh
Lonely Planet Mongolian Phrasebook - Alan J.K. Sanders


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